500 total word minimum with 2 total references. In specific, 250 words and 1 citation per numbered paragraph below.
1. Cocaine distribution and consumption in the United States has an interesting and varied history. There are several distinct periods in recent decades that help define the cocaine resurgence within America. Like with many products, narcotics go through cycles as they begin establishing themselves within society. The societal conditions need to be right in order for the drug to take hold in society and become popular among its citizens. Cocaine is no different. Because cocaine has been around for many decades it slowly integrated itself within American society. And due to the conditions of distinct periods in history, it entrenched itself in society and has become a major problem.
During the time period of 1947 through 1959 was s distinct period in cocaine history. Before the Columbian cartel became mainstream in American society, the cocaine trade was led by little known Peruvians, Bolivians, Chileans, Cubans, Mexicans, Brazilians, and Argentines (Rankin, 2010; Gootenberg, 2007). These â€˜small-timeâ€™ cocaine men and women pioneered the illicit cocaine drug trade in American and were vigorously pursued by U.S. Drug Agents who had the foresight that cocaine would be a major problem in America that was originating from the Andean region (Gootenberg, 2007). Before this time period, cocaine existed in infinitesimal amounts in America was relatively easily controlled and suppressed. This was made possible by the small number of smugglers entering America and the amounts smuggled were small, typically brought in ounce by ounce. Upon approaching 1959 smugglers were beginning to smuggle cocaine in larger quantities, moving from an ounce at a time (opportunistic smuggling) into smuggling kilos at one time.
During this initial time period between 1947 to 1959, another reason the cocaine industry was relatively small was the autonomy of cocaine producers in the Andes region (Gootenberg, 2007). Small farms produced the plants and transformed the leaves into cocaine to be smuggled around the world. The decentralized nature of the business did not allow for large quantities to be produced, concentrated, and then smuggled in large quantities. At the same time, American efforts began in 1947 against cocaine with a kind of â€œsecret warâ€ in the Andean region (Gootenberg, 2007). This era kicked off deep political trends in combatting the drug industry.
During the second phase, or resurgence taking place between 1959 to 1964, marked several major changes in the cocaine industry in America. The first major change that happened was a consolidation of power among the growing, processing, and smuggling circuits around the world (Gootenberg, 2007). A major watershed moment was the Cuban Revolution in 1959 which sent Cuban drug mafiosos across the Americas, spreading drugs around the Americas when the drug dealers were driven out of Cuba (Gootenberg, 2007). Cuba was the hub for international cocaine trafficking and tastes during the 1950s, a role that was better knows that Chileâ€™s role in the industry (Gootenberg, 2007). Then after 1960, Bolivia, which was cocaineâ€™s incubator, fell under U.S. style drug control forcing the coca-growing farmers into lowland jungles creating an unstoppable cocaine growing social base (Gootenberg, 2007). By the end of 1964, the U.S.-backed modernization efforts had reached their height, building a commodity chain of chemists and smugglers creating cocaine for users all across America (Gootenberg, 2007).
There is a clear distinction between the two time periods, marked by political and societal change across the world. With government intervention in the Andes, the Cuban revolution, and a blossoming movement in America of love and peace, which brought increases in drug usage, these changed made the cocaine industry explode in America. And once the cocaine industry was established, and drug dealers started making vast sums of money, the industry was here to stay.
Gootenberg, P. (2007). The “Pre-Columbian” era of drug trafficking in the Americas: Cocaine, 1945-1965. The Americas, 64(2), 133-0_7. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/209595867?accountid=8289
Rankin, M. (2010). Andean cocaine: The making of a global drug. Journal of World History, 21(3), 566â€“568. doi: 10.1353/jwh.2010.0023
2. The Mexican cartels for years have been openly defying United States drug policies for many decades. Since drugs were restricted under the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914, Mexican Organized criminal groups have been smuggling in narcotics into the United States (Grillo, 2013). Because the northwest organized crime groups were in an ideal position to supply the American black market with the desired drugs, criminal groups gladly supplied Americans defying U.S. laws and drug policies (Grillo, 2013). Due to the demand for narcotics, the temptation to make vast sums of money from Americans’ addiction, and a seemingly unmanageable 2,000-mile border to police, Mexican drug organizations have continuously smuggled drugs into America.
There are many reasons for this defiance of U.S. drug policy. First and foremost is the promise of significant financial returns by conducting business in the United States. The significant financial returns also came along with it the possibility of light prison terms if caught by law enforcement authorities. Under former President Bill Clinton, America had established programs with foreign governments regarding information sharing on drug traffickers (Anonymous, 1994). Within the program plea-bargaining was heavily used, and several leading narcotics traffickers surrendered to authorities in return for light jail sentences (Anonymous, 1994). The promise of light prison terms for cooperation instilled more incentive to violate drug policies. These policies did assist authorities as information learned from captured drug smugglers lead to the capture of Mr. Escobar from tips from rivals in Cali (Anonymous, 1994). But the reverse effect was an incentive to smuggle as the risks were outweighed by the rewards.
The United States has conducted countless operations to track, stop, or lessen the impact that drug organization/organized crime groups have had on the United States. These operations occur within and outside the political borders of America. One such operation was Operation Condor which in short was a combined military force with Latin America for the internal defense and development of a region’s military forces to carry out intense anti-subversion campaigns in order to neutralize and defeat internal enemies and took place over several phases (Zanchetta, 2016). The first phase was a combination of Latin America military forces with U.S. Military and intelligence forces that was established in the early Cold War years and was resolute in preventing â€œanother Cubaâ€ (Zanchetta, 2016). America allocated major resources to this strategy, strengthening intelligence structures and counterinsurgency methods, strengthening training for Latin American forces to possibly prevent another Cuban problem (Zanchetta, 2016). While at the same time ignoring other threats such as narcotics smugglers from Latin American countries.
The second phase became operation when joint forces take action against selected targets in member Condor countries (Zanchetta, 2016). The ultimate result was the tracking, surveillance, interrogation, kidnapping, torture, and elimination or alleged opponents (Zanchetta, 2016).
The third and most secret phase was the formation of highly trained special teams of assassins from Condor member countries to travel outside Latin America with the mission of eliminating subversive enemies (Zanchetta, 2016). Targets for elimination included ex-political leaders, prominent influential individuals, or people capable of mobilizing opposition against Latin America regimes (Zanchetta, 2016). America was attempting to shape Latin America countries in order to exert some control and create allies to America. This operation lasted from 1976 to 1978 when it was eventually stopped (Grillo, 2013).
Operation Intercept was different from Operation Condor on many levels. Operation Intercept began September 21, 1969 and was an attempt to weaken or stop Mexican drug organizations (United States. Department of State. Secretary, 1970). President Nixon at the time did not feel that the Mexican Government was doing enough to stem the production and flow of narcotics within their borders which ultimately end up in the United States. This operation only lasted a few weeks and was heavily centered around searching vehicles that wanted to cross the border into the United States. This aggressive effort was stopped after a few short weeks as the intensive effort stifled movement of people and goods.
Anonymous. (1994). Colombia, America and drugs: Whose fault? The Economist, 333(7886), 54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224115170/
Grillo, I. (2013, Fall). Mexican cartels: A century of defying U.S. drug policy. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 20, 253-265. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1513212378?accountid=8289
Zanchetta, B. (2016). Between Cold War imperatives and state-sponsored terrorism: The United States and â€œOperation Condor.â€ Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(12), 1084â€“1102. doi: 10.1080/1057610X.2016.1159069
United States. Department of State. Secretary. (1970). [Operation intercept damage to Mexico-U.S. relations; includes attachments] Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1679113525?accountid=8289