Evidence-Based Practice Matrix of TenPieces of Primary Research on One Topic Related to Nursing Authors Resource/ Database Year of Publication Research Type Population/ Sample Size Outcome Variables Measured Pertinent Data from Results Author’s Suggested Conclusions Comments -Sving Eva -IdvallEwa -Hans Ho¨gberg -Lena Gunningberg Pub Med 2014 Cross-sectional study -Population comprised of adult males above 17 years -Sample size = 825 Dependent variables -skin assessment -PU risk assessment -Planned repositioning of patients -use of pressure reliving mattress(PRM) The independent variables Age, gender, hospital size, nurse workload, nurse staffing, unit type. -Patient at risk have high chance of not receiving PRM or planned repositioning – Patient in general hospital had less chance of receiving PU screening and treatment -Where nurses worked for a short period, patient were unlikely to receive PRM, however the received scheduled repositioning -Nurses were likely to screen at treat PU in old patients -Planned repositioning was more common as compared to the use of PRM. -Most patients with high risk of developing PU were not screened within 24 hours. PU screening and treatment were not well implemented in both hospitals -Nurse workload and staffing played a very small role in PU treatment -There is need for nurses to take primary role in management of PU -The results emphasize on the nursing role in screening and management of PU. – The results obtained cannot be used to generalize findings as they are collected from a small sample. – Nurses need to take leadership roles and use evidence based PU management. _ There is need to carry out more research using larger samples collected for a long period. -Christine Schindler -Theresa Mikhailov – Evelyn Kuhn -Jean Christopher -Pat Conway -Debra Ridling -Annette Scott -Vickie Simpson Pub med 2011 -Cohort study involving a group of children lasting two years (2006-2007) Sample comprised of all children patients from march 2006-december 2007 -sample size = 5346 -Sample composed of those with and without PU Children demographic information (age, sex etc ) Clinical data (length of stay at hospital, diagnosis etc) -the incidence of PU among children was 10.2%. this was lower than previous studies due to implementation of PU management strategies -large disparities in how different institutions managed PU in children -nursing interventions such as turning the patient 2 hours, use of pressure reliving pillows and blankets, gel pads, PRM among others – three institutions with lower PU prevalence used protective nursing care – Nursing interventions are fundamental in reducing the prevalence of PU among children. – there is need to use best practices (evidence based practices) in managing PU among children – There is need to inculcate new evidence in managing and treating PU. The study used a large sample and data was collected over a long time. This increases the credibility of the results and allow for generalization. – Nurses must use evidence based practice in managing PU among children. -El EneinNY -Zaghloul Ahmad Pub med 2011 Cross-sectional study -population comprised of all nurses within study period. -sample size = 122 -the independent variables were nurse age, education level and experience. -the outcome was nurses knowledge on PU prevention – the outcome based on score nurses obtained from interview questionnaires -Nurses mean score for 9 out of 15 questions on useful PU prevention was below the expected level (<70%). -correct answers for non useful measures in preventing PU was 66% -most nurses were well educated -Most nurses had an experience of 1-5 years -despite nurses having good experience and education background, the failed on tests regarding PU prevention. – nurses knowledge on PU prevention is very low -nurses need to be educated on PU screening and prevention – the research shows that nurses have poor knowledge on PU management -the sample was collected from one country and cannot be used to generalize results -Mamhidir, anna -HögmanMarieann -Gunningberg Lena -Sving Eva Pub med 2012 -Descriptive research methods -combines qualitative and quantitative research methods -nine nurses were interviewed -data from patient records was collected -the outcome were Planned and unplanned PU prevention -PU prevention strategy were dependent on culture -registered nurses assumed that PU management was a basic role -PU prevention was seen as an assistant nurse function -nurses attention to management of PU was limited -nurses were complying with evidence based practices -Registered nurses did not concentrate on PU prevention – There was general confusion regarding planned and unplanned prevention The paper shows that registered nurses were not rely concerned about the PU prevention. -sample used was too small and non conclusive – patients data was not used to support the conclusion obtained -Lisa Pinkney -Jane Nixon -Lyn Wilson -Susanne Coleman -Elizabeth McGinnis -Nikki Stubbs -Carol Dealey -Andrea Nelson -Malcolm Patterson -Justin Keen EBSCO 2014 -A retrospective case study -70 interviewees drawn from patients and staff -medical data collected from patients with severe PU -actions by nurses and clinician that resulted to the severe PU -causes of the PU related to clinicians and nurses -Nurses and clinicians neglect resulted to severe PU -Clinicians and nurses did not respond to patients showing symptoms of PU -management of PU was not well coordinated -Clinicians did not listen to patients -negligence by clinicians and nurses was the cause of increased prevalence to PU -this research uses a retrospective study where individual accounts of the patients are developed – the study traces back at the cause of a particular outcome Samuriwo, Ray Medline 2010 -case study using Quantitative research methods 16 nurses were selected for interview -Value that nurses place of PU prevention – nurses place a low value on PU prevention – nurses value on PU prevention can be improved through training and exposure to patients with severe PU – the education nurses receive only seem effective if they have practical experience with patients with PU – nurses need practical experience with patients suffering from PU so as to improve their value on PU prevention strategy – This research is imperative in determining linking the value that nurses have on prevalence of PU. Clegg A. Kring, D., Plemmons, J &Richbourg, L Pub Med 2009 Case study Quantitative research method 84 participants -patients with heel PU – Factors exposing them to heel PU (high BMI, age, co-morbid conditions) -half of the population had palpable heel pulse -pressure ulcer found in 45% patients -19% of patients had serious tissue loss -patients with co-morbid conditions had low Braden scale scores -issues such as advanced age, malnutrition, co-morbid conditions increase heel PU prevalence – need for nurses to develop a better tools for assessing risks of heel PU -the paper argues health care experts to examine other PU and develop tools for assessing patients at risks. -Dimitri Beeckman -Tom Defloor -Lisette Schoonhoven -KatrienVanderwee Pub Med 2011 Cross-sectional study spanning many centers -2105 patients from 14 hospitals and 207 wards -553 nurses -PU prevalence levels among patients -knowledge and attitude among nurses -Relationship between knowledge and PU prevention -PU prevalence rates in hospitals was 13.5% – nurses had wide knowledge on PU prevention -no relationship between knowledge and PU prevention was found -PU prevention was correlated with attitudes -nurses are knowledgeable on PU prevention – the attitude that nurses have affect PU prevention strategies – Good research using a large number of participants. -results are highly conclusive and can be generalized -Rosen, Jules -Mittal, Vikas-Degenholtz, Howard -Castle, Nick -Mulsant, Benoit -Nace, David -Rubin, Fred Pub Med 2006 -case study All residents and staff of 136 bed nursing home in Pennsylvania -PU prevalence among black residents -PU prevalence among white residents -PU prevalence after educating the staff – The whites were more likely to suffer from stage 1 PU as compared to blacks -the blacks had higher odds of suffering from stage ii – stage Iv PU – education reduced these disparities – blacks had higher odds of suffering from stage II to stage IV PU as compared to whites -education reduced PU prevalence and eliminated the disparities – the research is good in comparing PU prevalence and treatment among different groups ElsyAthlin EwaIdvall MargarethJernfält Inger Johansson Medline 2010 -Case study 15 nurses from 2 heath care institutions -Factors that increase or reduce PU prevalence levels – -pressure ulcer trajectory was increased by patient related factors -hospital personnel increased PU occurrence and progress to other stages -hospital management affected PU trajectory – the nurses attitudes an knowledge may increase prevalence of PU – hospital management methods may increase the progression of PU to severe status -hospitals must develop an adequate PU care plan and note those responsible for identifying and managing PU Good research that documents the impacts on nursing care an hospital management in the progression of PU to severe levels(stage IV) Note: Assure you understand the definition of primary research. You cannot use evidence summaries, reviews of literature, guidelines, or standards for your ten pieces of research. Note: Tables/Matrices in APA format are phrases, not complete sentences. Note: Tables/Matrices in APA format should be single spaced. Note: Tables/Matrices can be placed within your essay and formatted for landscape or attached as a separate

How has your training prepared you for a nursing career?
Order Description
All students are required to attend an interview when applying for a New Graduate Program or a Registered Nurse Position. As part of the interview process you will be required to reflect on your past clinical experiences when answering interview questions. For this assessment task students are required to select one of the following interview questions:
1. How has your training prepared you for a nursing career?
2. What do you feel you contribute to your patients?
3. How would you handle a patient who constantly complains about pain?
Using the E.A.R (event, action, result) interview method and your reflective skills provide a written (800 word) summary to this question. You are also required to refer to the criterion referenced rubric on page 15 of the unit outline. This rubric will also form the basis of your feedback for this assessment item

 
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