Your firm spends $473,000 per year in regular maintenance of its equipment. Due to the economic downturn, the firm considers forgoing these maintenance expenses for the next 3 years. If it does so, it expects it will need to spend $1.9 million in year 4 replacing failed equipment. What is the IRR of the decision to forgo maintenance of the equipment?

The IRR of the decision is 15.94%

The IRR of the decision is 14.18%

The IRR of the decision is 15.32%.

The IRR of the decision is 18.36%

Your firm spends $473,000 per year in regular maintenance of its equipment. Due to the economic downturn, the firm considers forgoing these maintenance expenses for the next 3 years. If it does so, it expects it will need to spend $1.9 million in year 4 replacing failed equipment. Does the IRR rule work for this decision?

Only if the replacement cost is below $2 million.

No.

Yes.

The last four years of returns for a stock are as follows:

Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 |

-3.9% | +27.6% | +11.5% | +3.8% |

*Note: Notice that the average return and standard deviation must be entered in percentage format. The variance must be entered in decimal format.* What is the average annual rate? (Round to two decimal places.)

The average return is 10.15%.

The average return is 10.25%.

The average return is 10.05%.

The average return is 9.95%.

In mid-2009, Rite Ad had CCC-rated, 20-year bonds outstanding with a yield to maturity of 17.3%. At the time, similar maturity Treasuries had a yield of 3%. Suppose the mark risk premium is 5% and you believe Rite Aid’s bonds have a beta of 0.38. If the expected loss rate of these bonds in the event of default is 58%. What annual probability of default would be consistent with the yield to maturity of these bonds in mid-2009?

The required return for this investment is 4.90%. The annual probability of default is 23.38%.

The required return for this investment is 4.90%. The annual probability of default is 20.38%.

The required return for this investment is 4.90%. The annual probability of default is 22.38%.

The required return for this investment is 4.90%. The annual probability of default is 21.38%.

Weston Enterprises is an all-equity firm with two divisions. The soft drink division has an asset beta of 0.54, expects to generate free cash flow of $66 million this year, and anticipated a 3% perpetual growth rate. The individual chemicals division has an asset beta of 1.15, expects to generate free cash flow of $71 million this year, and anticipates a 4% perpetual growth rate. Suppose the risk free rate is 2% and the market premium is 5%. Estimate Weston’s current cost of capital.

Weston’s current cost of capital is 4.70%.

Weston’s current cost of capital is 3.70%.

Weston’s current cost of capital is 5.70%.

Weston’s current cost of capital is 2.70%.

Consider an investment with the following returns over four years:

Year | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

Return | 15% | 7% | 9% | 11% |

Which is a better measure of the investment’s past performance? If the investment’s returns are independent and identically distributed, which is a better measure of the investment’s expected return next year?

Arithmetic average is a better measure of the investment’s past performance while CAGR is a better measure of the investment’s expected return next year.

CAGR is a better measure of the investment’s past performance while arithmetic average is a better measure of the investment’s expected return next year.

Pisa Pizza, a seller of frozen pizza, is considering introducing a healthier version of its pizza that will be low in cholesterol and contain no trans fats. The firm expects that sales of the new pizza will be $15 million per year. While many of these sales will be to new customers, Pisa Pizza estimates that 27% will come from customers who switch to the new, healthier pizza instead of buying the original version. Assume customers will spend the same amount on either version. What level of incremental sales is associated with introducing the new pizza?

The incremental sales are $3 million.

The incremental sales are $9 million.

The incremental sales are $15 million.

The incremental sales are $11 million.

You need to estimate the equity cost of capital for XYZ Corp. Unfortunately, you only have the following data available regarding past returns:

Year | Risk-free Return | Market Return | XYZ Return |

2007 | 4% | 6% | 8% |

2008 | 1% | -43% | -50% |

Estimate XYZ’s historical alpha.

XYZ’s historical alpha is 1.1%.

XYZ’s historical alpha is 1.6%.

XYZ’s historical alpha is 1.9%.

XYZ’s historical alpha is 1.3%.

The figure below shows the one-year return distribution of Startup, Inc.

Probability | 40% | 20% | 20% | 10% | 10% |

Return | -100% | -75% | -50% | -30% | 1,000% |

Calculate the standard deviation of the return.

The standard deviation is 324%.

The standard deviation is 330%.

The standard deviation is 328%.

The standard deviation is 326%.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000, but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Compute the NPV of buying the chains from the FCF.

The NPV of buying the chains from the FCF is $-438,850.

The NPV of buying the chains from the FCF is $-438,820.

The NPV of buying the chains from the FCF is $-1,438,820.

The NPV of buying the chains from the FCF is $-2,438,820.

Consider an investment with the following returns over four years:

Year | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

Return | 15% | 7% | 9% | 11% |

What is the average annual return of the investment over the four years?

The average annual return is 1.50%.

The average annual return is 0.50%.

The average annual return is 10.50%.

The average annual return is 5.50%.

Bay Properties is considering starting a commercial real estate division. It has prepared the following four-year forecast of free cash flows for this division:

Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 | |

Free cash flow | $-122,000 | $-9,000 | $100,000 | $219,000 |

Assume cash flows after year 4 will grow at 3% per year, forever. If the cost of capital for this division is 17%, what is the value today of this division?

The value today is $528,283.

The value today is $928,283.

The value today is $228,283.

The value today is $728,283.

You need to estimate the equity cost of capital for XYZ Corp. Unfortunately, you only have the following data available regarding past returns:

Year | Risk-free Return | Market Return | XYZ Return |

2007 | 4% | 6% | 8% |

2008 | 1% | -43% | -50% |

Would you base your estimate of XYZ’s equity cost of capital on historical return or expected return?

Expected return because the CAPM provides a better estimate of expected returns.

Historical return because the average past returns provides a better estimate of expected returns.

You need to estimate the equity cost of capital for XYZ Corp. Unfortunately, you only have the following data available regarding past returns:

Year | Risk-free Return | Market Return | XYZ Return |

2007 | 4% | 6% | 8% |

2008 | 1% | -43% | -50% |

Compute the market’s and XYZ’s excess returns for each year. Estimate XYZ’s beta.

The market’s excess return for 2007 is 2%. The market’s excess return for 2008 is -44%. XYZ’s excess return for 2007 is 4%. XYZ’s excess return for 208 is -51%. XYZ’s beta is 1.20.

The market’s excess return for 2007 is 2%. The market’s excess return for 2008 is -44%. XYZ’s excess return for 2007 is 4%. XYZ’s excess return for 2008 is -51%. XYZ’s beta is 1.40.

The market’s excess return for 2007 is 2%. The market’s excess return for 2008 is -44%. XYZ’s excess return for 2007 is 4%. XYZ’s excess return for 2008 is -51%. XYZ’s beta is 1.10.

The market’s excess return for 2007 is 2%. The market’s excess return for 2008 is -44%. XYZ’s excess return for 2007 is 4%. XYZ’s excess return for 208 is -51%. XYZ’s beta is 1.30.

The last four years of returns for a stock are as follows:

Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 |

-3.9% | +27.6% | +11.5% | +3.8% |

*Note: Notice that the average return and standard deviation must be entered in percentage format. The variance must be entered in decimal format.* What is the variance of the stock’s returns? (Round to five decimal places.)

The variance of the returns is 0.01602.

The variance of the returns is 0.01702.

The variance of the returns is 0.01902.

The variance of the returns is 0.01802.

Consider an investment with the following returns over four years:

Year | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

Return | 15% | 7% | 9% | 11% |

What is the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for this investment over the four years?

The compound annual growth rate is 10.46%.

The compound annual growth rate is 10.36%.

The compound annual growth rate is 10.26%.

The compound annual growth rate is 10.16%.

Weston Enterprises is an all-equity firm with two divisions. The soft drink division has an asset beta of 0.54, expects to generate free cash flow of $66 million this year, and anticipated a 3% perpetual growth rate. The individual chemicals division has an asset beta of 1.15, expects to generate free cash flow of $71 million this year, and anticipates a 4% perpetual growth rate. Suppose the risk-free rate is 2% and the market premium is 5%. Estimate Weston’s current equity beta.

Weston’s current equity beta is 0.74.

Weston’s current equity beta is 0.66.

Weston’s current equity beta is 0.79.

Weston’s current equity beta is 0.70.

You are considering opening a new plant. The plant will cost $100.3 million upfront. After that, it is expected to produce profits of $31.9 million at the end of every year. The cash flows are expected to last forever. Calculate the NPV of this investment opportunity if your cost of capital is 7.1%.

The NVP of this investment opportunity is $349.0 million.

The NVP of this investment opportunity is $349.0 million.

The NVP of this investment opportunity is $349.0 million.

The NVP of this investment opportunity is $349.0 million.

Year | Risk-free Return | Market Return | XYZ Return |

2007 | 4% | 6% | 8% |

2008 | 1% | -43% | -50% |

What was XYZ’s average historical return?

XYZ’s average historical return was -18.0%.

XYZ’s average historical return was -15.0%.

XYZ’s average historical return was -21.0%.

XYZ’s average historical return was -20.0%.

Weston Enterprises is an all-equity firm with two divisions. The soft drink division has an asset beta of 0.54, expects to generate free cash flow of $66 million this year, and anticipated a 3% perpetual growth rate. The individual chemicals division has an asset beta of 1.15, expects to generate free cash flow of $71 million this year, and anticipates a 4% perpetual growth rate. Suppose the risk-free rate is 2% and the market premium is 5%. Estimate the value of each division.

The estimated value of the soft drink division is $70.3 million and the estimated value of the industrial chemicals division is $76.3 million.

The estimated value of the soft drink division is $3,882.4 million and the estimated value of the industrial chemicals division is $1,893.3 million.

The estimated value of the soft drink division is $3,796.2 million and the estimated value of the industrial chemicals division is $8,774.5 million.

The estimated value of the soft drink division is $1,893.3 million and the estimated value of the industrial chemicals division is $3,882.4 million.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000, but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Project the annual free cash flows (FCF) of buying the chains.

The annual free cash flows for years 1 to 10 of buying the chains is $-482,940.

The annual free cash flows for years 1 to 10 of buying the chains is $-485,940.

The annual free cash flows for years 1 to 10 of buying the chains is $-486,940.

The annual free cash flows for years 1 to 10 of buying the chains is $-489,940.

The last four years of returns for a stock are as follows:

Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 |

-3.9% | +27.6% | +11.5% | +3.8% |

*Note: Notice that the average return and standard deviation must be entered in percentage format. The variance must be entered in decimal format.* What is the standard deviation of the stock’s returns? (Round to two decimal places.)

The standard deviation is 13.99%.

The standard deviation is 14.79%.

The standard deviation is 14.99%.

The standard deviation is 13.79%.

You are considering a safe investment opportunity that requires a $920 investment today, and will pay $690 two years from now and another $640 five years from now. If you are choosing between this investment and putting your money in a safe bank account that pays an EAR of 5% per year for *any horizon*, can you make the decision by simply comparing this EAR with the IRR of the investment? Explain.

No, because the timing of the cashflows are different.

Yes, you can always compare IRRs of riskless projects, and an investment in the back is riskless.

No, this is like comparing the IRR of two projects.

Yes, because the EAR is the same at all horizons, so the two “projects” have the same riskiness, scale, and timing.

You are considering a safe investment opportunity that requires a $920 investment today, and will pay $690 two years from now and another $640 five years from now. What is the IRR of this investment?

The IRR of this investment is 8.65%.

The IRR of this investment is 6.92%.

The IRR of this investment is 22.29%.

The IRR of this investment is 11.74%.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000 but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Compute the FCF in years 1 through 9 of producing the chains.

The FCF in years 1 through 9 of producing the chains is $-338,950.

The FCF in years 1 through 9 of producing the chains is $-336,950.

The FCF in years 1 through 9 of producing the chains is $-342,950.

The FCF in years 1 through 9 of producing the chains is $-339,950.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000 but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Compute the NVP of producing the chains from the FCF.

The NVP of producing the chains from the FCF is $-3,007,692.

The NVP of producing the chains from the FCF is $-2,007,692.

The NVP of producing the chains from the FCF is $-4,007,692.

The NVP of producing the chains from the FCF is $-1,007,692.

IDX Tech is looking to expand its investment in advanced security systems. The project will be financed with equity. You are trying to assess the value of the investment, and must estimate its cost of capital. You find the following data for a publicly traded firm in the same line of business:

Debt outstanding (book value, AA-rated) | $392.4 million |

Number of shares of common stock | 77.2 million |

Stock price per share | $14.67 |

Book value of equity per share | $5.55 |

Beta of equity | 1.32 |

What assumptions do you need to make? (Select all the choices that apply.)

Assume comparable assets have same risk as project.

Assume debt is risk-free and market value = book value.

Assume comparable assets have same cost.

Assume debt is risk-free and market value > book value.

IDX Tech is looking to expand its investment in advanced security systems. The project will be financed with equity. You are trying to assess the value of the investment, and must estimate its cost of capital. You find the following data for a publicly traded firm in the same line of business:

Debt outstanding (book value, AA-rated) | $392.4 million |

Number of shares of common stock | 77.2 million |

Stock price per share | $14.67 |

Book value of equity per share | $5.55 |

Beta of equity | 1.32 |

What is your estimate of the project’s beta?

The project beta is 1.98.

The project beta is 0.98.

The project beta is 2.98.

The project beta is 1.48.

Your firm spends $473,000 per year in regular maintenance of its equipment. Due to the economic downturn, the firm considers forgoing these maintenance expenses for the next 3 years. If it does so, it expects it will need to spend $1.9 million in year 4 replacing failed equipment. For what costs of capital (COC) is forgoing maintenance a good idea?

For costs of capital that are less than the replacement costs.

For costs of capital that are greater than the NPV.

For costs of capital that are less than the IRR.

For costs of capital that are greater than the IRR.

In mid-2009, Rite Ad had CCC-rated, 20-year bonds outstanding with a yield to maturity of 17.3%. At the time, similar maturity Treasuries had a yield of 3%. Suppose the mark risk premium is 5% and you believe Rite Aid’s bonds have a beta of 0.38. If the expected loss rate of these bonds in the event of default is 58%. In mid-2012, Rite Aid’s bonds a had a yield of 8.2%, while similar maturity Treasuries had a yield of 0.8%. What probability of default would you estimate now?

The probability of default will be 10.48%.

The probability of default will be 8.48%.

The probability of default will be 11.48%.

The probability of default will be 9.48%.

Bay Properties is considering starting a commercial real estate division. It has prepared the following four-year forecast of free cash flows for this division:

Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 | |

Free cash flow | $-122,000 | $-9,000 | $100,000 | $219,000 |

Assume cash flows after year 4 will grow at 3% per year, forever. If the cost of capital for this division is 17%, what is the continuation value in year 4 for cash flows after year 4?

The continuation value is $1,611,214.

The continuation value is $1,601,214.

The continuation value is $611,214.

The continuation value is $1,621,214.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000 but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Compute the difference between the net present values of buying the chains and producing the chains.

The net present value of producing the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier is $431,128.

The net present value of producing the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier is $331,128.

The net present value of producing the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier is $131,128.

The net present value of producing the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier is $231,128.

You are considering opening a new plant. The plant will cost $100.3 million upfront. After that, it is expected to produce profits of $31.9 million at the end of every year. The cash flows are expected to last forever. Should you make the investment?

Yes, because the project will generate cash flows forever.

No, because the NVP is not greater than the initial costs.

Yes, because the NVP is positive.

No, because the NVP is less than zero.

A bicycle manufacturer currently produces 356,000 units a year and expects output levels to remain steady in the future. It buys chains from an outside supplier at a price of $2.10 a chain. The plant manager believes that it would be cheaper to make these chains rather than buy them. Direct in-house production costs are estimated to be only $1.50 per chain. The necessary machinery would cost $290,000 and would be obsolete after 10 years. This investment could be depreciated to zero for tax purposed using a 10-year straight-line depreciation schedule. The plant manager estimates that the operation would require additional working capital of $40,000, but argues that this sum can be ignored since it is recoverable at the end of the 10 years. Expected proceeds from scrapping the machinery after 10 years are $21,750. If the company pays tax at a rate of 35% and the opportunity cost of capital is 15%, what is the net present value of the decision to produce the chains in-house instead of purchasing them from the supplier?

Compute the FCF in year 10 of producing the chains.

The FCF in year 10 of producing the chains is $-182,613.

The FCF in year 10 of producing the chains is $-282,813.

The FCF in year 10 of producing the chains is $-182,813.

The FCF in year 10 of producing the chains is $-282,613.

Compute the initial FCF of producing the chains.

The initial FCF of producing the chains is $-335,000.

The initial FCF of producing the chains is $-339,000.

The initial FCF of producing the chains is $-340,000.

The initial FCF of producing the chains is $-330,000.

You are considering opening a new plant. The plant will cost $100.3 million upfront. After that, it is expected to produce profits of $31.9 million at the end of every year. The cash flows are expected to last forever. Use the IRR to determine the maximum deviation allowable in the cost of capital estimate to make the investment.

The maximum deviation allowable in the cost of capital is 28.65%.

The maximum deviation allowable in the cost of capital is 21.60%.

The maximum deviation allowable in the cost of capital is 24.70%.

The maximum deviation allowable in the cost of capital is 18.45%.

The figure below shows the one-year return distribution of Startup, Inc.

Probability | 40% | 20% | 20% | 10% | 10% |

Return | -100% | -75% | -50% | -30% | 1,000% |

Calculate the expected return.

The expected return is 30.0%.

The expected return is 31.2%.

The expected return is 32.0%.

The expected return is 30.7%.

You are considering opening a new plant. The plant will cost $100.3 million upfront. After that, it is expected to produce profits of $31.9 million at the end of every year. The cash flows are expected to last forever. Calculate the IRR.

The IRR of the project is 30.60%.

The IRR of the project is 28.80%.

The IRR of the project is 33.70%.

The IRR of the project is 31.80%.

Pisa Pizza, a seller of frozen pizza, is considering introducing a healthier version of its pizza that will be low in cholesterol and contain no trans fats. The firm expects that sales of the new pizza will be $15 million per year. While many of these sales will be to new customers, Pisa Pizza estimates that 27% will come from customers who switch to the new, healthier pizza instead of buying the original version. Suppose that 39% of customers who switch from Pisa Pizza to its healthier pizza will switch to another brand if Pisa Pizza does not introduce a healthier pizza. What level of incremental sales is associated with introducing the new pizza in this case?

The incremental sales are $11 million.

The incremental sales are $8 million.

The incremental sales are $6 million.

The incremental sales are $13 million.