post and 2 responses

The post should have minimum 250 word with 2 references .

1- Discuss chemical dependency as either a primary or secondary concern for disaster management. List three potential concerns and identify a possible solution for each. Choose and defend which one is the primary solution.


2- need 2 responses for 2 classmates posts ( 50 words each)

Post 1

With chemical dependency, people continue to use drugs even after the significant problems related to their use have developed. A majority of the chemically dependent people want to stop, but they cannot because their bodies are chemically dependent on the drugs and alcohol to operate. As such, this threatens the smooth functioning and peaceful development of societies, and for this reason, it is a potential concern for disaster management around the world. Possible concerns are Effect on a person’s health, Compromised government. Traffickers corrupt officials to continue with their criminal activities, Criminal offenses.

Possible solutions

Health- Universal prevention programs should be initiated, aiming at providing the skills to make healthy choices and decisions in life. For those who started the abuse but yet to succumb to dependence, screening and treatment should be initiated. For those who are already addicted, treatment with behavioral intervention should be done. Besides, impact on governance- Policies and initiative against drug trafficking should be integrated into government development programs in all countries and, at the same time, strengthening government institutions to share the responsibilities of eradicating drug trafficking.

Criminal offenses- Social programs not directly connected to chemical dependency like vocational training programs can be used as a target to reach young people who are at risk of becoming dependent and hence committing a crime. In addition to that, intervention to those vulnerable to lack of food, clothing and shelter can reap benefits since some people resolve to drug trafficking and abuse due to lack of these basic needs.

Primary Solution

Policies and initiatives against drug trafficking should be integrated into government development programs in all countries. Because of this, there will be nothing to abuse hence no dependency.


NCBI. (2019). Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. Retrieved from NCBI:


Post 2

Human Begins react differently when a disaster occurs. While some people attempt to cope well after such events, others may get into depression and eventually start depending on chemical substances. For majority of such people, the substances provide the quickest relief as a result of the stress levels that they experience from disasters. Massive disaster like hurricanes may pose significant amount of psychological effects that require disaster management teams to plan for the social consequences of these events. In most instances, situations like chemical dependency are secondary concerns, mainly when the response teams should save lives that are immediate risk.

Chemical dependency leads to long- term effects that include respiratory challenges and cardiovascular as well as cancer problems (SAMHSA, 2019). The management of these conditions is costly, and the best approach is to create awareness about the risks of substance abuse. In many instances, mind- changing substances do not alleviate psychological effects from a disaster. The continual use of these substances enhances the risk of falling into depression and other mental health challenges.

The first significant concern in such situations for the disaster management team is to mitigate the increased use of substances after a disastrous event (Elevation Behavioral Health, n.d). The possible solution is to offer social support to affected individuals and families, as many would use drugs and alcohol to cope with the aftermath and situation. The second concern is communication, as it is essential to respond effectively to chemical dependency. Due to the occurrence of the disaster, drug users may demonstrate aggression and decline any interventions to assist them. Imperatively, the team should ensure that it has enough health care professionals to help the affected people (Alexander& Ward, 2018). Secondly, the team needs to create awareness concerning the effects of substance use and dependency. The team should be concerned with helping all affected people to manage stress and should set up centers during the disaster. The centers will provide preventive information and awareness to reduce potential people that may start using substances.


Alexander, A. C., & Ward, K. D. (2018). Understanding Post Disaster Substance Use and

Psychological Distress Using Concepts from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol.50, No.2, pp.177-186.

Elevation Behavioral Health (n.d). Substance Abuse Increases After Natural Disasters. Retrieved


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2019). Substance Use

Disorders and Disasters. Retrieved from…

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