VARIATION STUDIES: SOME FINDINGS AND ISSUES (10 points)Briefly summarize the following studies:a. Labov, W. 1972. “The social stratification of (r) in New York City department stores.”b. Trudgill, P. 1974. The social differentiation of English in Norwich.c. Cheshire, J. 1978. “Present tense verbs in Reading English.”d. Milroy, J. & Milroy, L. 1978. “Belfast: Change and variation in an urban vernacular.”3. LANGUAGE CHANGE (10 points)a. Which are the three barriers to researching language change in progress?b. What is the attitude of sociolinguists toward “free variations”?c. (ii) Define the concepts “changes from below” and “changes from above” as proposedin Labov (1972) concerning the basic mechanism of sound change.

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