Lukas believed that his company’s merit pay system would reward him fairly with a higher salary if he worked harder than other employees. His desire to work hard could be explained by the of_____ motivation.


According to recent research, only 35% of full-time students complete their university degrees in four years. Why is this? Could universities improve academic performance and completion rates simply through the use of goal setting? Dominique Morisano tested this idea in her dissertation. Morisano followed 85 students who weren’t doing very well in school for four months. The entire group of students was similar in many ways (GPA, demographics, native language, and academic probation standing). Half of the students (the goal group) participated in an eight week intensive goal-setting program, while the other half (the control group) did not. The goal-setting program helped students to set personal goals and to create detailed strategies for achieving them. Morisano found that students who received goal-setting training were less likely to withdraw from school than students in the control group. The results of Morisano’s experiment on GPA are shown next.

What do the results of Morisano’s study (shown on the graph) illustrate?

A. Having specific, difficult goals increases a student’s GPA.

B. Students with higher GPAs are more likely to set goals.

C. Training students in goal setting leads to an increase in their GPAS.

D. Students performed better in their second semester than they did in their first semester.

Taylor owns a store in Santa Fe, New Mexico, that sells pottery, glassware, and tiles made by local artisans. Taylor knows that goals are powerful motivators and wants to use them to increase the performance of her business. At the same time, she knows that goals can lead to negative consequences as well as positive ones. She wants to manage the goal-setting process to avoid adverse outcomes.

Answer Taylor’s question about goals. “One of my goals is to sell a certain dollar value of work each week. However, I also want to cultivate long-term relationships with customers and artists. One of my employees approaches each customer in a friendly and informative way, but as soon as the customer indicates they’re “just looking,” the employee loses interest and walks away. How can I change this employee’s behavior?”

A. Periodically raise the goal for profitability and reward employees when they exceed the target.

B. Show the employee how increasing the profits of the store will result in bigger raises and expansion of the business, meaning more opportunities for promotion.

C. Provide the employee with customer service training.

D. Set specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timebound goals (SMART goals) for both profitability and customer service.

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