White-collar crime is a criminal activity committed by commercial and/or government employees while conducting legitimate business operations. The vast majority of these crimes are of a financial nature, and they are frequently motivated by a desire to gain an economic advantage over others rather than by violence. White-collar crimes affect individuals, taxpayers, shareholders, businesses, and local governments, as well as the federal government. There are various theories as to why people commit white-collar crimes (Gibbs, Cassidy & Rivers, 2013). However, the routine activity theory is the most useful in terms of understanding white-collar crime. According to Cohen and Felson’s routine activities theory, for a crime to occur, there must be three components: a motivated offender and the capacity to commit them; a suitable target; and the lack of guardian. All three of these factors must be present at the same time and in the same location for a crime to occur.
Even though Cohen and Felson originally developed the routine activities theory to explain direct contact, researchers have begun to apply it to other types of crime, such as white-collar crime, that do not involve direct physical contact between victims and offenders. Besides, a study has demonstrated and validated the use of routine operations as an explanation for white-collar computer crimes such as fraud. That is, the spatially and temporally disordered online environment, according to the study’s findings, facilitates people’s convergence in place and time when committing white-collar crimes (Gibbs, Cassidy & Rivers, 2013). Furthermore, online behavior puts a victim in virtual contact with a criminal who is motivated to commit a white-collar crime. Notably, the motived offender may contact victims via company communication systems, procedures, or networks for these crimes to occur in a virtual environment or through unsupervised communications.