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Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

There are various forms of bias, but the two major types are selection bias and information bias. Selection bias is when a group or individual is selected, and it is apparent that their selection is not due to randomization. For example, during a case study, 20 individuals were asked to participate in a survey, where 8 individuals are positive for a disease and the other 12 are negative. In this case, the research would use selection bias to pick the 8 positive individuals to prove their data, but it is obvious that randomization did not work. Information bias is when inaccurate data is measured to give flawed data. For example, during a controlled experiment, some of the controlled individuals were classified as exposed, while some of the exposed individuals were classified as the control, which makes the data for the experiment inaccurate (Celentano& Szklo, 2019).

The article I chose is called how to avoid bias in systematic reviews of observational studies by Almeida & Goulart. The article discussed how bias emerges in a systematic review by selection bias, information bias, and confounding bias. To minimize these occurrences of bias, the funnel plot technique (visual aid in detecting bias), statistical tests, and using communication tools to get in contact with researchers to get more details on primary data is effective. Utilizing more than one reviewer to independently collect and analyze data from primary studies and using comparable methodological quality to allow the identification of biases (Almeida & Goulart, 2017).

Additionally, bias can originate due to multiple steps of an investigation or from a retrospective cohort where bias arises due to missing information due to using existing records or selecting the individuals after an outcome has already occurred. To prevent this researchers must try their best in improving the design and applying statistical techniques when evaluating the results. Establishing a follow-up procedure to keep records of all variables to prevent missed information. Designing studies by including confounding variables from the beginning, matching by age and gender and including adjustment techniques (Ramirez-Santana. 2018).

Inferences based on data with bias provides inaccurate results with missing information. Therefore, the result will not be valid or credible for use. Additionally, if the data interpreted was biased with false information and that biased result was used to make a drug, people ingesting that drug can be killed, because the formula might be incorrect and the drug might be deadly for the human body or the dosage might be too strong/lethal.


Almeida, B.P.C., & Goulart, G.N.B. (2017). how to avoid bias in systematic reviews of observational studies. Revista Cefa, 19(4), 551-555. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-021620171941117

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

Ramirez-Santana, M. (2018). Limitations and Biases in Cohort Studies. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/cohort-studies-in-health-sciences/limitations-and-biases-in-cohort-studies

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


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