IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:
Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.
Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease and to establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. The word cohort means a group of people. These types of studies look at groups of people. They can be forward-looking (prospective) or backward-looking (retrospective). From question 1 of our assignment, this was a study of a retrospective cohort study showing the association between reserpine, breast cancer in women and obesity. From the 2 X 2 table, it was determined Reserpine is a risk factor among the non-obese, the rate ratio is 6.40/4.10 = 1.6. Obesity is a risk factor among women who did not take reserpine, the rate ratio is 8.30/4.10 = 2.0. the group of reserpine non-users avoids potential confounding by reserpine. Looking at Confounding is a bias because it can result in a distortion in the measure of association between an exposure and health outcome. For the confounder associated with the exposure, this association has to be greater than 1 (for a harmful association) or less than 1 (for a protective association). A confounding variable is a variable (say, pollution) that can cause the disease under study (cancer) and is also associated with the exposure of interest (smoking). The existence of confounding variables in smoking studies made it difficult to establish a clear causal link between smoking and cancer unless appropriate methods were used to adjust for the effect of the confounders (Baumgarten & Olsen, 2004). In question 2 this was the same issue when understanding pollution relation to COPD, the determination from this that smoking was not a confounder.
Baumgarten, M & Olsen, C. Confounding in Epidemiology. Retrieved from https://www.unav.edu/documents/16089811/16216616/C…
Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)
- Ask a probing question.
- Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
- Offer and support an opinion.
- Validate an idea with your own experience.
- Make a suggestion.
- Expand on your colleague’s posting.
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class
To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.